Friday, September 30, 2005


Roses are a group of herbaceous shrubs found in temperate regions throughout both hemispheres. All the Roses of the Antipodes, South Africa and the temperate parts of South America have been carried there by cultivation. French Rose (Rosa gallica) Click on graphic for larger image The birthplace of the cultivated Rose was probably Northern Persia, on the Caspian, or Faristan on the Gulf of Persia. Thence it spread across Mesopotamia to Palestine and across Asia Minor to Greece. And thus it was that Greek colonists brought it to Southern Italy. It is beyond doubt that the Roses used in ancient days were cultivated varieties. Horace, who writes at length on horticulture, gives us an interesting account of the growing of Roses in beds. Pliny advises the deep digging of the soil for their better cultivation. In order to force their growth, it was the practice to dig a ditch round the plants and to pour warm water into the ditch just as the rose-buds had formed. The varieties were then very limited in number, but it would appear that the Romans, at all events, knew and cultivated the red Provins Rose (Rosa gallica), often mistakenly called the Provence Rose. The word rosa comes from the Greek word rodon (red), and the rose of the Ancients was of a deep crimson colour, which probably suggested the fable of its springing from the blood of Adonis.

Monday, August 22, 2005

Waimeai Posted by Picasa


Waimeai Falls Park

Pale pink Azalea Posted by Picasa

Pale pink Azalea

Pale pink Azalea

This is my favorite color.

Hale Koa flowers Posted by Picasa

Hale Koa flowers Posted by Picasa

Hale Koa flowers

Hale Koa flowers

I thought this one was especially beautiful, Water lilly

Joan's Yard Posted by Picasa

Joan's Yard

Joan's Yard

These are on a huge tree. Many leis are made from these very aromatic flowers. I love them.

Kiribati Posted by Picasa


Kiribati Photo Shoot

Another macro flower shot.

Betty's Posted by Picasa

Betty's Posted by Picasa


Betty's flowers in Selma 6-20-04

Friday, August 19, 2005

Rose Posted by Picasa

Rose Posted by Picasa

Rose Posted by Picasa

Rose Posted by Picasa


Rose pictures at this site were taken at the Rose Gardens at Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis ( Spring 2000), Huntington Botanical Garden, Los Angeles, and private collection (Prof. Ton That Trinh, Irvine, California (Summer 2000).

Most of roses growing today are "Modern Roses" which have been developed after 1867. Before 1867, all cultivated roses belong to "Old Garden Roses" class. 1867 is the year that new hybrid roses were produced by crossing between a hybrid perpetual with a tea rose. This new class of roses bloom repeatedly and abundantly from Spring to Fall and made rose to be the Queen of the Flower Garden!

For the list of all roses at this site, click on Roses A thru Z. You can also choose Hybrid Teas, Floribundas, Grandifloras or Other Roses.

  • Hybrid Tea Rose is the biggest and most popular group of the Modern Roses. Hybrid Teas were developed by crossing between Tea Roses with Hybrid Perpetual Roses. The roses in this group are big, multi-petal and repeated flowering. The earliest Hybrid Tea Rose was produced by a French botanist in 1867.
  • Floribundas were produced by crossing between Hybrid Teas and Polyantha Roses. Floribundas have multiple flowers on each stem and more free, perpetual flowering. The earliest Floribundas were produced in 1924.
  • Grandiflora is one of the newest class of roses which was introduced in Great Britain in 1954. Grandifloras were the products of crossing between Hybrid Teas with Floribundas. Flowers are large double with many different colors. The first grandiflora is named 'Queen Elizabeth'.
  • Other roses: New English Shrub, Hybrid Perpetual, Landscape, Miniature and Climbing roses.

Friday, July 22, 2005

Grapes Posted by Picasa

Grapes Posted by Picasa

Apple Posted by Picasa


A grape is the fruit of a vine in the family Vitaceae. It is commonly used for making grape juice, jelly, wine and raisins, or can be eaten raw.

Many species of grape exist including:

Hybrids also exist, primarily crosses of V. vinifera with one or more varieties of V. labrusca, V. riparia or V. aestivalis. Hybrids tend to be less susceptible to frost and disease (notably phylloxera), but their wine has little of the characteristic "foxy" odor of labrusca.

Currently, a large fraction of the grape crop goes to producing grape juice to be used as a sweetener for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural".

Grapes are being extensively researched all over the world as a result of the "French Paradox" contrasting the diets of the French with those of other Western countries, particularly the United States. Despite the fact that the French eat substantially more animal fat, they have a significantly lower incidence of heart disease. Many scientists now believe the reason is the greater consumption of red wine in France. Compounds such as resveratrol have been discovered in grapes.

Resveratrol and other grape compounds have been positively linked to fighting cancer, heart disease, degenerative nerve disease and other ailments.

Although many people incorrectly assume that red grapes have the most health benefits, the fact is that grapes of all colors have comparable benefits. Red wine has health benefits not found in white wine because many of these compounds are found in the skins of the grapes and only red wine is fermented with the skins.

Apple Posted by Picasa

Apple Posted by Picasa


" Round fruit with firm juicy flesh and green, red or yellow skin when ripe.

" Apples contain a lot of fibers.

" Don't eat wagonloads of appleseeds, each one contains a little bit of cyanide. This is done by the tree in order to spread its seeds. Our bodies and those of animals will more likely excrete the seeds and not digest them when they are a little toxic. The toxic is not digested but you should be careful with the consumption of crushed seeds.

" The vitamin C content of apples depends on what kind of apple it is. Most sorts contain a lot of vitamin C.

" Nutrition Facts

Fruit Nutrition Facts

Fruit comparison tables. Overview of vitamin and mineral content including nutrition charts of the individual fruits.

Lose weight with fruit

This article can be helpful in your efforts to reach your ideal weight in a healthy way. It shows how to gradually obtain your personal ideal weight by eating as much fruit as you like!

Dietary Tools

Free diet tools for complete nutritional analysis.

Fruit & detoxification of the body

This article describes the detoxification process of the body, stimulants and the slow reaction of your body, it reacts like an oil tanker.

Olives and Olive Oil

This fruit should be a part of everbody's diet.

Read this article and find out about the amazing health benefits of olives and olive oil.

The Energy in fruit - fruit provides clean energy

This article deals with the following subjects related to fruit:

- Proteins;

- Water in fruit;

- The burning process & sugar in fruit..

" Selection

Fruit Selection

Be sure to select only the best fruits at your local store. There are many different ways to check if a fruit is of good quality and here you can find how.

Take The Tour

Surprise yourself: learn things about fruit you never even thought existed.


The most delicious recipes containing fruit.

" Recipes

Recipes - RecipeZaar: The World's Smartest Cookbook

The Fruit Pages have partnered with RecipeZaar to provide complete nutritional analysis. Over 40.000 recipes with nutrition facts per serving size. Search by course, special diets, country and even "time to make". Ofcourse a large fruit recipe database is available under the ingredient section. According to some an "addictive cooking tool". Go check it out.

Healthy Nutrition - PCRM

The PCRM (Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine) describes preventive nutrition and offers a lot of interesting articles about modern nutrition. Latest scientific researches and more. Check out the article about calcium in dairy,

Fruit & Diabetes

Ashley's Diabetes Information Center - A place where you can find Nutritional Information, Restaurant Nutritional links, Diabetes Resources, Medical Centers in your area, carb counting, diabetes symptoms & treatement, Learn about diabetes.

Fruit List

Fruit list sorted by common name. Name, Genus Species and Family. Provided by

Fruit Business

Fruit online, your link to the fruit business. Fruit-prices, market-analyses, statistics, fruit industry news and business opportunities.

Fruit Allergies

This web site offers information about fruit allergies.

Mark Rieger's Fruit Crop Home Page

Your source of information on the world's major fruit crops.

California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc.

A series of publications containing information on individual fruits, including botanical identification. - The Ultimate Citrus Page

Source for Citrus Information.

National Agricultural Library (NAL)

NAL is a major international source for agriculture and related information.

Gardening in Western Washington

All about gardening from the Washington State University.

American Diabetes Association

For information about fruit and diabetes.

Dole 5 a day

Teaches the importance of eating five fruits and vegetables every day and provides recipes for kids to try.

The Fruit Game

Funny fruit game.

Fruit of the Loom



North American Fruit Explorers. An organization of amateur growers of fruit and nuts.

UC Fruit & Nut Center

Department of Pomology University of California.

Tropical Fruit

Includes description, history, storage, and uses for tropical fruit.

Fruit and Vegetable Programs

USDA Agricultural Marketing Service

Tropical Fruit Names List

View by scientifical name or common name.

For more information about apples check out the Urban Programs Resource Network of the University of Illinois Extension. They offer a lot of information.

Thursday, July 21, 2005

Tomato Posted by Picasa

Tomato Posted by Picasa

Tomato Posted by Picasa


Cultivation and uses

The tomato is now grown world-wide for its edible fruits, with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types, and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from 'cherry tomatoes', about the same 1-2 cm size as the wild tomato, up to 'beafsteak' tomatoes 10 cm or more in diameter. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5-6 cm diameter range. Most cultivars produce red fruit, but a number of cultivars with yellow fruit are also available. Tomatoes grown for canning are often elongated, 7-9 cm long and 4-5 cm diameter; these are known as 'plum tomatoes'.

Early history

It is believed to have been first cultivated in ancient Peru, where several similar wild species still grow. Then about three thousand years ago it was brought to Mexico. It is an offshoot of the Mexican lineage which is thought to be the direct ancestor of the modern cultivated tomato. The pottery of ancient Peruvian city-states do not appear to mention the tomato, this has led some botanists to conclude that the first cultivation of the tomato was done in Mexico. However this is not conclusive as many other fruits in continuous cultivation in Peru are not present in the pottery. Also much horticultural knowledge was lost after the arrival of Europeans, as the Christian Church had a policy of burning all Pre-Columbian books as pagan.

European discovery

In the 16th and 17th centuries, many Europeans believed tomatoes were poisonous because of the plant's relationship to nightshade, although they were grown as ornamental plants in gardens. Tomato leaves and stems are indeed poisonous but the fruit is safe.

The first traces of use of tomato as food in Europe date back to southern Europe in the first half of the 18th century. Only in the second half of the 19th century cultivation of the tomato as food begins to be widespread, mainly in southern Italy and France. Vincenzo Corrado, a cook in the Neapolitan court, describes recipes with tomatoes in the book Il cuoco galante, first edition 1773, adding more recipes with tomatoes in the 1819 edition.

In 1809, Nicolas Appert, a chef from Paris, published L'art de conserver les substances alimentaires d'origine animale et végétale pour plusieurs années, a book on food conservation where he deals with preserving tomatoes.

North America

Young tomato plants in a garden

In the United States, Thomas Jefferson was a pioneer in growing tomatoes. Beginning in 1809, he had large ribbed "Spanish" tomatoes cultivated on his plantation. Jefferson's daughters left numerous recipes that involved tomatoes, including gumbo soups, cayenne-spiced tomato soup, green tomato pickles, tomato preserves, and tomato omelettes. Tomatoes were purchased in 1806 for Presidential dinners. Randolph's The Virginia Housewife has seventeen recipes for tomatoes, including gazpacho, gumbo, and catsup. In an 1824 speech before the Albemarle Agricultural Society, Jefferson's son-in-law, Thomas Mann Randolph discussed the transformation of Virginia farming due to the introduction of new crops. He mentioned how tomatoes were virtually unknown ten years earlier, but by 1824 everyone was eating them because they believed they kept one's blood pure in the heat of summer

A story that is still widely cited is that the lingering doubts about the safety of the tomato in the United States were largely put to rest in 1820, when Colonel Robert Gibbon Johnson announced that at noon on September 28, he would eat a basket of tomatoes in front of the Salem, New Jersey courthouse. Reportedly, a crowd of more than 2,000 persons gathered in front of the courthouse to watch the poor man die after eating the poisonous fruits, and were shocked when he lived. Many historians however doubt that this event ever happened.

Modern uses of tomatoes

Tomatoes on a vine

Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. Today, their consumption is believed to benefit the heart. Lycopene, one of nature's most powerful antioxidants, is present in tomatoes and has been found to be beneficial in preventing prostate cancer, among other things.

Botanically a fruit, the tomato is generally thought of and used as a vegetable: it's more likely to be part of a sauce or a salad than eaten whole as a snack, let alone as part of a dessert (though, depending on the variety, they can be quite sweet, especially roasted).

Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cuisines, especially Italian ones. The tomato has an acidic property that is used to bring out other flavors. This same acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning as tomato sauce or paste. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. Unripe green tomatoes can also be used to make salsa, be breaded and fried, or pickled.

The town of Buñol, Spain annually celebrates La Tomatina, a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests, and there is a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad actors or singers on a stage.


Botanical classification

The tomato was originally described scientifically in 1753 by Carolus Linnaeus in the genus Solanum as Solanum lycopersicum L. (derivation, 'lycopersicum', "wolf-peach"). Later, in 1768, Philip Miller contended that it was sufficiently distinct from other Solanum species to be given its own genus, so he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. This name, though widely used, is in breach of the plant naming rules, as he failed to use Linnaeus' species name; this oversight was corrected by Hermann Karsten who published the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.) H. Karst. in 1881.

However, modern genetic evidence has now shown that Linnaeus was correct, and Miller wrong, in the correct generic placement of the tomato; it is fully within the range of genetic variation found in the genus Solanum. Therefore, Linnaeus' original name has been restored for the species.

Fruit or vegetable?

Tomato fruit

Botanically speaking a tomato is the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant. This would mean that technically it would be considered a fruit. However, from a culinary perspective the tomato is typically served as or part of a main course of a meal, meaning that it would be considered a vegetable. This argument has led to actual legal implications in the United States. In 1887, U.S. tariff laws which imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. The U.S. Supreme Court settled this controversy in 1893, declaring that the tomato is a vegetable, along with cucumbers, squashes, beans, and peas, using the popular definition which classifies vegetables by use, that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert. The case is known as Nix v. Hedden.


Heirloom tomato varieties

The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English speaking countries; it can either be pronounced to-MAY-toe or to-MAA-toe. The difference is inherent in the dialects, British English and Commonwealth English speakers typically saying to-MAA-toe, while American English speakers have a tendency to say to-MAY-toe. The word's multiple pronunciations were immortalized in song in Gershwin's 1937 song, Let's Call the Whole Thing Off (You say to-may-to and I say to-mah-to / you say po-tay-to and I say po-tah-to), and have become a symbol for nitpicking pronunciation disputes. In this capacity it has even become an American slang term, saying "to-may-toe, to-maa-toe" when presented with two choices can mean "what's the big deal, there's no real difference.".

Picking and ripening

Tomatoes on vine

Tomatoes are often picked unripe, and ripened in storage with ethylene. Ethylene is the plant hormone produced by many fruits and acts as the cue to begin the ripening process. These tend to keep longer, but have poorer flavor and a mealier, starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. They may be recognized by their color, which is more pink or orange than the ripe tomato's deep red.

Recently, stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine" which are ripened still connected to a piece of vine. These tend to have more flavor (at a price premium) than artificially-ripened tomatoes, but still may not be the equal of local garden produce.

Also relatively recently, slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening variety with ordinary tomato cultivars. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor.


The best storage temperature for tomatoes remains disputed, with a wide range of temperatures from 6°C to 18°C cited by different sources; temperatures below 12.5°C are reported by some sources to cause loss of flavor or other damage, with others stating that low temperatures improve storage time.

Tomato records

The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz), of the cultivar 'Delicious', grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond, Oklahoma in 1986. The tallest tomato plant grown was 19.8 m (65 ft) by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley, Lancashire, UK, in 2000.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family, native to South and Central America. It is an annual plant, typically growing to 1-3 m long, with a weakly woody stem that usually scrambles over other plants. The leaves are 10-25 cm long, pinnate, with 5-9 leaflets, each leaflet up to 8 cm long, with a serrated margin; both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. The flowers are 1-2 cm across, yellow, with five pointed lobes on the corolla; they are borne in a cyme of 3-12 together. The fruit is an edible, brightly coloured (usually red, from the pigment lycopene) berry, 1-2 cm diameter in wild plants, commonly much larger in cultivated forms.

Orange Posted by Picasa

Orange Posted by Picasa


Orange refers to a citrus tree (Citrus sinensis) and the fruits of this tree. It is a hybrid of ancient cultivated origin, possibly between pummelo (Citrus maxima) and tangerine (Citrus reticulata). It is a small tree, growing to about 10 m tall, with thorny shoots and evergreen leaves 4-10 cm long. The fruit originated in southeast Asia, in either India, Vietnam or southern China. The fuuit from the species Citrus aurantium are also called oranges, varieties of C. aurantium are more bitter than C. sinensis.

Cultivation and uses

'Ambersweet' oranges

Orange cultivation is a major business and an important part of the economies of the US states of Florida and California, many Mediterranean countries, Romania, South Africa, China, and the Riverina district around the Murray River in Australia.

Oranges are widely grown in warm climates worldwide, and the flavors of orange vary from sweet to sour. The fruit is commonly peeled and eaten fresh, or squeezed for its juice. It has a thick bitter rind that is usually discarded, but can be processed into animal feed by removing water using pressure and heat. It is also used in certain recipes as flavoring or a garnish. The outer-most layer of the rind is grated or thinly veneered with a tool called a zester, to produce orange zest which is popular in cooking because it has a similar flavor to the fleshy inner part of the orange. The white part of the rind, called the pith, is almost always discarded. Oranges also can be used to create citrus oil, which is used in aromatherapy to uplift and relieve stress.

Oranges and orange juice

Other products made from oranges include:

  • Orange juice is one of the commodities traded on the New York commodities market. Brazil is the largest producer of orange juice in the world, followed by Florida, USA.
  • Orange oil, produced by pressing the peel, is used in surface conditioning of wooden furniture, and along with other citrus oils in grease removal and as a hand-cleansing agent. Orange spray, extracted from orange peels and sold commercially, is an extremely efficient cleaning agent which is environmentally friendly and non-toxic. It also smells much more pleasant than other cleaning agents.
  • The orange blossom, which is the state flower of Florida, is traditionally associated with good fortune, and was popular in bridal bouquets and headwreaths for weddings for some time. The petals of orange blossom can also be made into a delicately citrus-scented version of rosewater.
  • Orange blossom honey, or actually citrus honey, is produced by putting beehives in the citrus groves during bloom, which also pollinates seeded citrus varieties. Orange blossom honey is highly prized, and tastes much like orange.


Blood oranges

All citrus trees are of the single genus Citrus, and remain largely interbreedable; that is, there is only one "superspecies" which includes lemons, limes and oranges. Nevertheless, names have been given to the various members of the citrus family, oranges often being referred to as Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantium. All members of the genus Citrus are considered berries because they have many seeds, are fleshy, soft and derive from a single ovary.

A number of cultivars are now cultivated around the world. The sweet orange was first grown in Spain, and has become the most popular variety. The sweet orange will grow to different sizes and colors according to local conditions, most commonly with ten carpels, or slices, inside.

A single mutation in 1820 in an orchard of sweet oranges planted at a monastery in Brazil led to the navel orange, also known as the Washington, Riverside or Bahia navel. A single cutting of the original was then transplanted to Riverside, California in 1870, creating a new market worldwide. The mutation causes a 'twin' fruit, with a smaller orange embedded in the outer fruit opposite the stem. From the outside, the smaller, undeveloped twin leaves a formation at the top of the fruit, looking similar to the human navel. Navel oranges are almost always seedless, and tend to be larger than the sweet orange. They are produced without pollination, through parthenocarpy.

The Valencia or Murcia orange is one of the sweet oranges used for juice extraction. It is a late-season fruit, and therefore a popular variety when the navel oranges are out of season.

The blood orange has streaks of red in the fruit, and the juice is often reddish. The mandarin orange is similar, but smaller and sweeter, and the scarlet navel is a variety with the same diploid mutation as the navel orange.


Orange derives from Sanskrit nāraṅgaḥ "orange tree", with borrowings through Persian nārang, Arabic nāranj, Spanish naranja, Late Latin arangia, Italian arancia or arancio, and Old French orenge, in chronological order. The first appearance in English dates from the 14th century. The name of the colour is derived from the fruit, first appearing in this sense in the 16th century.

Wednesday, July 20, 2005

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 Posted by Picasa

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